Duan, Jian; Bauer, Leah; Van Driesche, Roy; Gould, Juli. 2018. Progress and challenges of protecting North American ash trees from the emerald ash borer using biological control. Forests. 9(3): 142
The USDA (APHIS, FS, ARS) has an EAB Biological Control Program that involves the importation of insect natural enemies or "parasitoids" from EAB’s native range in Asia. Four such parasitoid species have been approved for release in the United States since 2007, when releases first began in Michigan. Release of these EAB parasitoids has begun in most states infested with EAB, and three parasitoid species are now establishing and spreading at many locations. This brochure provides information on EAB biocontrol, including a summary of a decade of research in southeast Michigan forests where these introduced parasitoids, along with woodpeckers and some native parasitoids, are protecting regenerating ash saplings and young trees. Expanded parasitoid releases are recommended for forests invaded by EAB in North America, as well as expanded foreign exploration in Asia for different parasitoids as EAB spreads south and west in the United States.
Duan, J.J., Van Driesche, R.G., Bauer, L.S., Reardon, R., Gould, J., Elkinton, J.S. 2017. The role of biocontrol of emerald ash borer in protecting ash regeneration after invasion. FHAAST-2017-02. Morgantown, WV: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Health Assessment and Applied Sciences Team. 10 p.
Bauer, L.S., J.J. Duan, J.G. Gould, R.G. Van Driesche. 2015.
The Canadian Entomologist 147: 300–317.